Concept

Addressing the aforementioned individual stopping factors, iKaaS – intelligent Knowledge‐as‐a‐Service intends to build a secure data storage and privacy‐preserving analytics engine over heterogeneous multi‐cloud environments spanning across national borders. Since user participation is the key to building such a knowledgebase and since ubiquitously sensed user data is certainly going to be of a personal nature, iKaaS –intelligent Knowledge‐as‐a‐Service will build privacy, security and trust into the storage, access and analysis capabilities of the data by‐design instead of plugging in data protection mechanisms at a later stage. This is in accordance with the privacy‐by‐design concept developed by Ontario’s Information and Privacy Commissioner, Dr. Ann Cavoukian, in the 1990s. In Europe, in the comprehensive reform of the data protection rules, proposed on January 25, 2012 by the EC, the new data protection legal framework introduces, with respect to the Directive95/46/EC, the reference to data protection by design and by default (Article 23 of the Proposal for a Regulation and Article 19 of the Proposal for a Directive).

These articles compel the controller to “implement appropriate technical and organizational measures and procedures in such a way that the processing will meet the requirements of this Regulation and ensure the protection of the rights of the data subject.” and to “implement mechanisms for ensuring that, by default, only those personal data are processed which are necessary for each specific purpose of the processing [...]”. For instance, privacy‐preserving data release methods may guarantee a certain sort of anonymisation but our work will build empirical models to quantify the risks associated with those methods, and relate those risks with costs of attacks, which can be understood in non‐technical and legal language. Continuous protection of data as well as integrity of analytics algorithms running on the data is another field with numerous theoretical as well as implementation challenges, especially over multiple cloud environments in different administrative domains and a myriad of connected personal computing devices. This is where we intended to break new grounds with optimised cryptographic techniques and new cloud data protection capabilities. To cater for applications built atop this knowledgebase to provide end‐user as well as business‐ to‐business services, we aim to bring to fruition the state‐of‐the‐art concepts in the domain of computational trust.

For facilitating cross border data transfer based on the iKaaS platform, we have to coordinate the real frameworks for privacy and data protection among participating member countries. Based on the existing regal regulations for the treatment of personal information among member countries, we will study regal solutions for flexible and privacy enhanced treatment of cross border data which is transitioned via iKaaS platform. It includes demarcation points of regal responsibility of data holders, data transfers or data receiver’s and remedies if problems occur. Through the multi stake holder scheme, we will set out building best practices for privacy and data protection treatment of cross border data transitioned via iKaaS platform. Personalised health recommendation scenario: The cloud‐hosted B2C service will monitor information about the participant’s daily health conditions (e.g., weight, body temperature, blood pressure) and [iKaaS] 7 activities (e.g., exercise log) by smart devices or smart phones, and also gather environmental information (e.g., temperature, weather condition, and pollution level) from sensors in a smart city. It will analyze this information along with the participant’s life log (e.g., what the user eats) and electronic healthcare records to build recommendations (e.g., suggestion for an exercise in a certain park). The analysis results and suggestions could be sent to user’s mobile terminals.

The knowledge developed in the aforementioned B2C service can also be used in the B2G domain. For example, a B2G service can provide information for an official report and recommendation for a governmental healthcare strategy (e.g., strategy of official healthcare monitoring in a certain area of a city). Furthermore, the analysis results can be used by academic researchers in epidemiology. Researchers can build human life models and the models are used for comparison between two or more countries and future prediction of health conditions in a certain area of a city. The prediction could inform the future budget plan of a government. (Future scenario) The final goal of data collection in this project is making a city (growth) model based on healthcare information, population changes, changes in the city such as infrastructure, physical environments (parks, roads, clinics, shops, and so on), and governmental services. This model is effective for estimating future shapes of a city and determining an efficient way to make new facilities. The city models are shared with many countries and some models can be used as reference models for developing countries.

Multi-Cloud Architecture

iKaaS will design an open, adaptable and secure Everything as a Service framework for incorporating optimal service deployment which includes migration and parallelization as well as distributed management of smart objects, associated storage, processing and communication of data, targeted to enable re‐usability of applications across different domains and platforms as well as Knowledge as a Service.

Knowledge as a Service

iKaaS will develop mechanisms for facilitating re‐usability of smart objects as a distributed data processing capability, across different administrative and business domains. iKaaS will also develop mechanisms for enabling the notion of Knowledge‐as‐a‐Service (KaaS).

Security, Privacy, And Trust

iKaaS will design an open, adaptable and secure Everything as a Service framework for incorporating optimal service deployment which includes migration and parallelization as well as distributed management of smart objects, associated storage, processing and communication of data, targeted to enable re‐usability of applications across different domains and platforms as well as Knowledge as a Service.